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Spontaneous vanishing of hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report of an extremely rare incident

1 Department of Endemic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt
3 Department of Gastroenterology, Damietta Gastroenterology and Cardiology Center, Damietta, Egypt
4 Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Mohamed El-Kassas,
Department of Endemic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Ain Helwan 11795, Cairo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_177_21

One of the very uncommon clinical conditions is the spontaneous remission of tumors, with scarce reports around the world in various types of tumors. Spontaneous remission of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely rare, but it is well documented with a still unclear underlying mechanism. In this case report, we present one of those exceptional incidents of HCC regression with a trial to tackle possible explanations. Our case, which has a history of successfully treated hepatitis C virus, presented with a large infiltrative right lobar mass invading the main portal vein, with markedly elevated alpha fetoprotein (AFP). According to the applied diagnostic and treatment guidelines, the patient was scheduled for conservative management. Although he did not receive any specific treatments for his condition, the mass regressed in size with recanalization of the portal vein and normalization of AFP after 6 months of follow-up and keep the same for the following 3 years. The mechanisms by which spontaneous regression of HCC can occur are still unknown and should be furtherly investigated better to understand the behavior of such aggressive neoplastic disease.

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