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GNB1, a novel diagnostic and prognostic potential biomarker of head and neck and liver hepatocellular carcinoma

 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Yasir Hameed,
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_1901_20

Background: Nucleotide-binding protein beta 1 (GNB1) encodes for heterotrimeric G-protein subunit beta (β) that is involved in various transmembrane signaling systems. A little has been reported earlier regarding GNB1 dysregulation in human cancers. Therefore, we carried out this study to investigate GNB1 expression levels and explore its prognostic values in distinct human cancers through a multi-layered bioinformatics approach. Methods: GNB1 expression and promoter methylation levels across distinct cancers were analyzed using UALCAN, GENT2, and MEXPRESS databases, whereas its potential prognostic values were evaluated through Kaplan–Meier plotter. Then, cBioPortal was utilized to analyze the GNB1-related genetic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs). However, GNB1-related pathways were explored using DAVID. Moreover, the correlational analysis between GNB1 expression and CD8+ T immune cell infiltration and a gene–drug interaction network analysis were performed using TIMER, CDT, and Cytoscape. Results: GNB1 was found commonly upregulated in 23 major subtypes of human cancers and its upregulation was significantly correlated with the reduced overall survival of only head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) and liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC). This implies that GNB1 plays a significant role in the development and progression of these cancers. The GNB1 was also found to be upregulated in HNSC and LIHC patients of different clinicopathological features. Pathways enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of GNB1-enriched genes in several diverse pathways, whereas a few interesting correlations were also documented between GNB1 expression and promoter methylation level, CD8+ T immune cell infiltration, and CNVs. In addition, we have also predicted few drugs that could regulate the GNB1 expression. Conclusions: Our findings suggested GNB1 as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of HNSC and LIHC.

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