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Preoperative prediction of retroperitoneal lymph node involvement in clinical stage IB and IIA cervical cancer


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, İstinye University, Gaziosmanpaşa Medical Park Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
3 Department of Pathology, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Osman Aşıcıoğlu,
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_106_20

Objective: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is the most important factor affecting survival in early-stage cervical cancer (CC). International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics revised the staging of CC in 2018 and reported LNM as a staging criterion. We investigated the preoperatively assessable risk factors associated with LNM in surgically treated stage IB1-IIA2 CC patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with or without para-aortic lymphadenectomy for CC stage IB1–IIA2 from 2004 to 2019. All patients included in this study were examined with speculum inspection, parametrial assessment by rectovaginal palpation under general anesthesia, transvaginal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and chest radiography. Clinical staging was done according to the preoperative findings. MRI was used to measure tumor and lymph node dimensions. Results: Out of the 149 women included in the study, 29 (19.4%) had LNM. Univariate analysis revealed that larger tumor size (≥30 mm), lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) detected with diagnostic biopsy, parametrial involvement, and deep stromal invasion status were significantly different between the group with LNM and the group without LNM. In multivariate analysis, specific preoperative risk factors such as MRI based tumor diameter ≥30 mm and LVSI (+) on the diagnostic biopsy were found to be independent risk factors for LNM in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The rate of LNM is high in patients with CC with a tumor size ≥30 mm and preoperative biopsy LVSI status even if they are clinically in early stages. Surgeons can take this into account while deciding between primary surgery and chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of CC.


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