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Comparative evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of MCM2 and Ki67 in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

1 The Tooth Dental Clinic, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Department of Dentistry, Nalanda Medical College Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
3 Dr. Raju Dental Care Ramanagar, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Roquaiya Nishat,
Department of Dentistry, Nalanda Medical College Hospital, Agamkuan Flyover, Sadikpur, Patna - 800 007, Bihar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_10_20

Aim and Objectives: The aim and objective of the study were to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferative markers, Ki67, and MCM2 in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), to compare the relationship of their staining patterns, and to look for correlation between them, if any. Materials and Methods: Thirty archival paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of previously diagnosed cases of OED, OSCC each, and 10 normal oral mucosa were used in the study. Immunohistochemical staining for MCM2 and Ki67 markers was done and the slides were individually evaluated for MCM2 and Ki67 expression, with immunopositivity determined on the basis of dark brown staining of the nucleus. The number of positively stained nuclei was counted in 10 representative areas and the data were charted and statistically analyzed. Results: The overall mean expression of both the proteins increased progressively from normal mucosa to OED to OSCC. In normal mucosa, all positively stained nuclei were seen in the basal compartment of the epithelium, while in dysplastic cases, expression was seen toward the surface of squamous epithelium. In OSCC, the frequency of expression of MCM2 and Ki-67 proteins showed an inverse correlation with the degree of tumor differentiation. In well-differentiated cases, the positivity of either marker was restricted to the outermost layer of the tumor cells. In moderately differentiated cases, an expression of Ki-67 was more diffuse in inner layers, whereas the MCM2 antigen was found to be more intense and diffuse in both the inner and outer layers. Whereas in poorly differentiated SCC, positive expression was seen in most of the tumor cells, the mean expression of MCM2 was found to be higher than that of Ki67 in all cases. Conclusion: MCM2, as a proliferation marker, is superior to Ki67 as it indicates the capacity of proliferation and the ability of DNA replication of a cell.

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