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Utility and feasibility of a six-color multiparametric flow cytometry for measurable residual disease analysis in plasma cell myeloma in resource-limited settings with 5-year survival data

1 Department of Hematology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Immunopathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Man Updesh Singh Sachdeva,
Department of Hematology, Research Block A, 5th Floor, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160 012
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1027_19

Introduction: Treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved over decades with the introduction of novel therapeutic strategies. Response rates has significantly improved; however, there is a need for more sensitive techniques to study the residual disease other than conventional means. We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a two-tube six color multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) assay for measurable residual disease (MRD) detection in MM patients on treatment. Methodology: Pretitrated cocktails containing antibodies against CD38, CD138, CD45, CD19, CD56, CD81, CD27, and cytoplasmic kappa and lambda light chains were used in the combination of two tubes and were acquired on a flow cytometer. Limit of detection was determined through dilution and spiking experiments with a limit of 0.01%. Results: Of the 62 patients screened, 58 patients were included in the final study cohort (day 100 postautologous stem cell transplant and at the end of induction chemotherapy). Twenty-eight patients (48%) revealed the presence of MRD in bone marrow on MFC (median = 0.12, range = 0.01–5.89%). Out of 28 MFC-MRD positive patients, only 16 patients showed M band on immunofixation-electrophoresis (IFE) (MRD+/IFE+, 57%), and rest of them were IFE negative (MRD+/IFE-, 42%). Patients with MRD positive status at the end of induction chemotherapy or day 100 posttransplant had an inferior overall survival (P = 0.009) and progression-free survival (P = 0.0002) than those with MRD negativity. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the impact of MRD testing in MM using MFC with a long follow-up data, suggesting its routine incorporation in monitoring the disease independent of the immunofixation status.

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