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Histopathological prognosticators and their clinicopathological correlation in oral squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue

1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, ITS-CDSR, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology, Microbiology and Forensic Odontology, Dental Institute, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Kriti Pallavi,
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, ITS-CDSR, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_392_20

Background: Tongue carcinomas account for 25%–40% of intraoral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Although TNM staging systems is an international standard for cancer reporting, prognosis evaluation, and treatment planning, multiple histopathological risk assessment predictors such as tumor thickness (TT), tumor shape, tumor growth pattern, and invasive malignancy grading scoring systems have been studied and should form a basis for prediction and prognostication of such aggressive carcinomas. Aim: To evaluate and characterize the histomorphological prognostic indicators in OSCCs of tongue and compare it with OSCCs of other anatomic sites within the oral cavity. Furthermore, to elucidate the significance of histopathological indicators in predicting prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Materials and Methods: Forty SCC cases with 20 each of tongue and 20 from other intraoral sites were retrieved from department archives. Clinical data and staging were obtained for each case. Histomorphological parameters including pattern of invasion (POI), tumor budding (TB), depth of invasion (DOI), TT, lymphocytic host response, tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE), vascular invasion, perineural invasion (PNI), and muscular invasion were assessed. The results were statistically evaluated. Results: TB, DOI, and sarcolemmal spread were significant histologic predictors in tongue SCC. Upon correlation of histomorphological parameters with clinical staging, TT, POI, and TATE were observed to be significantly correlated (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The histomorphological risk assessment model may serve as important addition to the existing prognosticators and may be used as a prognostic index to help plan and individualize treatment protocol in cases with aggressive high-risk disease for whom the use of multimodality treatment seems beneficial.

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