Biochemical and molecular anticancer approaches for Boerhaavia diffusa root extracts in oral cancer
Dharani Gunaseelan1, Mohamed Sharmila Banu Nagoor Ali1, Abhishek Albert2, Rajkumar Prabhakaran2, Daniel Lysias Beno3, Baskaran Nagarethinam4
1 Department of Chemistry and Biosciences, Srinivasa Ramanujan Center, SASTRA Deemed University, Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Cancer Biology Unit, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Histopathology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Chemistry and Biosciences, Srinivasa Ramanujan Center, SASTRA Deemed University, Kumbakonam; Department of Technology Dissemination, Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
Department of Technology Dissemination, Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology, Pudukottai Road, Thanjavur - 613 005, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Boerhaavia diffusa is a medicinal herb with anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties, found across India.
Aim and Objectives: The present study is designed to investigate the therapeutic potential for B. diffusa root extracts in oral cancer cell line.
Materials and Methods: The aqueous and methanolic extracts of B. diffusa were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. In order to determine the phytochemical constituents of B. diffusa, the extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The antioxidant potential of B. diffusa extracts was assessed by 2,2-Diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl, ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power, catalase and peroxidase assays. The effective concentration of B. diffusa root on cell viability was analyzed by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The ability of B. diffusa root extracts to modify the cell-cycle phases was performed by FACS analysis. The apoptotic inducing potential of B. diffusa in oral cancer cells was confirmed by acridine orange-ethidium bromide and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The protein profile of apoptotic processes was validated by the Western blot analysis; docking studies were also performed.
Results: We observed that antioxidant activity was higher in B. diffusa methanolic extract compared with aqueous extract. The results showed that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of B. diffusa exhibited significant cytotoxic effect with IC50 value of 36 μg/ml and 30 μg/ml, respectively. The apoptotic DNA fragmentation and the apoptotic inducing potential in KB oral cancer cell line were higher for the methanolic extract compared with the aqueous extract. These results were also confirmed by in-silico analysis.
Conclusion: The results indicate that extracts obtained from the roots of B. diffusa inhibit the progression of oral cancer. These compounds of pharmacological importance can be either used alone or in combination with other drugs to treat oral cancer.