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Correlation of the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase with micronuclei counts among areca nut chewers of Manipuri population using exfoliative cytology: A preliminary study

1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Dental College, RIMS, Imphal, Manipur, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Manipur University, Imphal, Manipur, India
3 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Dental College, RIMS, Imphal, Manipur, India

Correspondence Address:
Ngairangbam Sanjeeta,
Department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology, Dental College, RIMS, Imphal - 795004, Manipur
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1227_20

Context: Areca nut (AN) is a potent cytotoxic and genotoxic agent. Oxidative stress-induced by chewing of AN can cause DNA damage leading to nuclear anomalies such as micronuclei (MN) and also alters antioxidant defense mechanisms, leading to genomic instabilities and the development of oral cancer. Aims: The aim of this study is to study the correlation between the levels of glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells and the genotoxicity levels (MN count) in chronic AN chewers. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted with the approval of the Research Ethics Board in 60 individuals; 40 cases (Group I–20 raw AN chewers, Group II–20 dried areca with tobacco chewers), and 20 controls as Group III in the age group of 18–68 years who attended the outpatient department of our college. Estimation of SOD and GR and MN assessment was done using buccal exfoliated cells. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results: Antioxidant levels were found to be significantly reduced in both Group I and Group II in comparison to the control group. Group II showed significantly reduced level of GR in comparison to Group I. The MN count was significantly increased in Group II in comparison to Group I. The MN counts showed an inverse correlation to the activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Greater activities of antioxidant enzymes correlated with decreased MN counts. Conclusions: Detection of MN in AN chewers with or without tobacco can be a useful biomarker for clinical screening procedures that may be used as a risk marker for oral cancer. It is important to increase the awareness programs to educate the public about the deleterious effects of AN chewing, emphasize on early intervention of AN chewing habit and thus prevent the development of oral cancer.

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