|LETTER TO THE EDITOR
|Ahead of print publication
Decision-making and technical skills to prevent local recurrence after mastectomy for pure ductal carcinoma in situ
Gianluca Franceschini, Alba Di Leone, Sabatino D'Archi, Riccardo Masetti
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Department of Woman and Child Health and Public Health, Multidisciplinary Breast Unit; Rome, Italy
|Date of Submission||25-Dec-2020|
|Date of Decision||02-Jan-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||05-Jan-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||18-Jun-2021|
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.Department of Woman and Child Health and Public Health, Multidisciplinary Breast Unit, Rome, Italy. Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this URL:|
Franceschini G, Leone AD, D'Archi S, Masetti R. Decision-making and technical skills to prevent local recurrence after mastectomy for pure ductal carcinoma in situ. J Can Res Ther [Epub ahead of print] [cited 2022 Jul 3]. Available from: https://www.cancerjournal.net/preprintarticle.asp?id=318949
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represents up to 20% of newly diagnosed breast cancers due to widespread adoption of screening. Conservative mastectomies with immediate reconstruction are the optimal local treatment in wide DCIS, multicentric disease, inadequate margins after breast-conserving surgery, and other contraindications to breast conservation.,,
The main goal of treatment is to avoid local failure with possible invasive recurrence that could lead to metastasis in 12%–15% of the cases; various studies demonstrated that young age, high nuclear grade, and inadequate margins increase the risk of local recurrence (LR).,,,
We agree with Donghyun Kim et al. that resection margin status has a great impact on LR after mastectomy for DCIS: patients with positive margin have a 2.91-fold higher risk of LR than those with close margin.
However, appropriate knowledge, surgical training, and expertise are essential requirements to minimize the risk of LR; individual dexterity and technical ability but also decision-making skills and repetitive performance of specific tasks are crucial to optimize oncological outcomes; the modern breast surgeon should always perform standardized steps to reduce the risk of local failure:
- Accurate preoperative study by ultrasonography and mammography and selective use of magnetic resonance to assess the extent of DCIS, localize microcalcifications, and determine the more appropriate planes of dissection; a multidisciplinary discussion in a dedicated “Surgery Board” is useful to select the best candidates to mastectomy and the most appropriate techniques
- Careful choice of the most “performing” skin incision designed on the basis of breast morphology and DCIS topography to achieve a better view of glandular tissue and anatomical planes; inframammary crease or lateral–radial incision is preferable in nipple-sparing mastectomy
- Meticulous dissection of mammary gland performed in the subdermal fascial plane by preserving an adequate subcutaneous thickness to maintain vascular viability and avoid residual glandular tissue; the circummammary ligament is used as an anatomical guide to peripheral limits of mastectomy; and the maneuver of blunt dissection using the fingertips may be helpful to define the correct surgical plane and perform an accurate separation of the gland by all borders
- Proper attention to conservation of the pectoralis major fascia while removing the mammary gland to ease the reconstructive stage
- Accurate excision of retroareolar tissue for frozen section analysis in nipple-sparing mastectomy to evaluate the status of nipple–areola complex and minimize the risk of LR
- Intraoperative radiological and pathological assessment of the removed specimen to define every lesion localized preoperatively and resection margins
- Careful exploration of cavity postmastectomy to exclude the presence of residual glandular tissue; skin flaps should be visualized and trimmed, if necessary, to remove any residual tissue and ensure uniform flaps.
We strongly believe that adequate scientific knowledge, dedicated training for proper technical skills, and repetitive performance of standardized tasks in a multidisciplinary pathway are the most useful tools to prevent LR and increase the chance of success after mastectomy for DCIS.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| > References|| |
Kim D, Ki Y, Kim W, Park D, Joo J, Jeon H, et al
. Comparison of local recurrence after mastectomy for pure ductal carcinoma in situ
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Mamtani A, Nakhlis F, Downs-Canner S, Zabor EC, Morrow M, King TA, et al
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Franceschini G, Terribile D, Magno S, Fabbri C, D'Alba P, Chiesa F, et al
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