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The impact of Momordica charantia treatment on cisplatin-induced adverse effects in albino rats

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Department of Pathology, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Al Minufiyah, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Fatma Mohsen Shalaby,
King Khalid University, Faculty of Sciences, Biology Department, Abha

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_18_20

One of the major antineoplastic drugs is cisplatin that has a dose-dependent toxicity. Momordica charantia (bitter melon), a natural healthy vegetable, and its metabolites possess hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and other beneficial properties. Aim: This study evaluates the effect of combined cisplatin and bitter melon extract (BME) treatment on liver and kidney of male albino rats. Subjects and Methods: The animals were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (1 mg/kg body weight) and concurrent oral treatment of BME, 300 mg/kg body weight. The effect of cisplatin/BME co-treatment on liver and kidney was determined by evaluating the histopathological changes and immunohistochemical expression of apoptotic markers: caspase-3, P53, and Bcl-2 and PCNA as a proliferative indicator. Results: This study shows that cisplatin/BME co-treatment improves cisplatin-induced hepatic but not renal pathological changes. It decreases significantly the proliferative activity in liver and renal tissues and augments some apoptotic pathways in both organs. Conclusion: Administration BME alone did not show any undesirable side effects on hepatic and renal biochemical or pathological levels as cisplatin. It enhances apoptosis and inhibits proliferation on molecular levels. Combined cisplatin/BME treatment shows more apoptotic and antiproliferative effects and enhances nephrotoxicity. Therefore, concurrent consumption of BME and cisplatin is not advisable in vivo. The antiproliferative potential of BME renders it a possible alternative option for cancer therapy taking into consideration the dose and duration of treatment. Further, in vivo studies are needed to investigate whether administration of specific BM ingredients alternative or consecutive with cisplatin may enhance its apoptotic and antiproliferative efficacy.

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