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An unknown chromosomal aberration in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Extra isochromosome 4q

1 Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey
2 Department of Haematology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Emine Ikbal Atli,
Department of Medical Genetic, Faculty of Medicine, Campus of Balkan, Trakya University, Edirne
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_236_17

The genetic characterization of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has made significant progress over the past few years. Chromosomal abnormalities are detected in up to 80% of patients. Determination of new chromosomal disorders is important in the pathogenesis and treatment facilities. A patient was diagnosed with CLL Stage 2 on 2012 and followed since then by hematology clinic. She was 63 years old. Mature, small lymphocytes, and smudge cell was found in the patient's peripheral blood smear. Bone marrow (BM) biopsy made and hypercellularity showing infiltration of atypical cells with CD5+, CD20+, and CD23+ were determined. Hypoplasia is detected in myeloid/erythroid series, and Stage 2 reticular fibers proliferation were detected. The patient was followed up without medication. While follow-up of patient's white blood cell: 57300, hemoglobin: 5.36, and PLT: 99700 are determined in May 2014. According to the patient's flow results, CD5+, CD23+, and FMC7+ were detected. Mature, small lymphocytes and smudge cell was found in the patient's peripheral blood smear. In ultrasonography imaging, multiple laps were found in the abdomen and multiple neck lymph nodes were detected. The patient BM aspiration was performed in 2014, and hypercellularity was found to contain 54% of atypical lymphocytes in the BM. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis made two times in 2014. At first, FISH analysis patient's rate of 18% in RB1/13q14.2/13qter revealed a deletion of the gene regions. Patient's FISH result was reported as normal (for RB1/13q14.2/13qter) after 5 months at second analysis. Cytogenetic analysis is made from the patient's BM at the same time. According to the results of karyotyping and FISH, 47, XX, isochromosome 4q (+i4q) is determined. According to literature, extra isochromosome 4q is reported by our case for the first time in CLL. She was diagnosed with Stage 4 CLL and FISH treatment was initiated. Our patient showed disease progression compared to previous results. Hence, we offer that this evidence can be considered regarding triggering the disease's progression or as a result of disease progression i4q was occurred.

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