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Evaluation of role of alpha-methyl acyl-coenzyme A racemase/P504S and high molecular weight cytokeratin in diagnosing prostatic lesions

 Departments of Pathology and Anesthesia, Pt. B D Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Deepika Jain,
Department of Pathology, Pt. B D Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Background: In recent years basal cell markers (high molecular weight cytokeratin [HMWCK]) and prostate biomarker alpha-methyl acyl-coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) have been used as adjuvant to morphology in diagnostically challenging cases with a very high sensitivity and specificity. This has increased the diagnostic accuracy of prostate cancer worldwide. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, total of 50 cases including 37 cases of malignant lesions and 13 cases of benign lesions of the prostate were taken. Tumor grade was determined according to Gleason's grading system. AMACR and HMWCK expressions were determined by immunohistochemical staining. The obtained results were analyzed and evaluated using Chi-square statistical test (SPSS version 20). Results: AMACR was not expressed in any of the 13 cases of benign lesions of the prostate while in malignant lesions of prostate it was expressed in 33 of 37 (89.18%) cases. All 4 (100%) cases of well-differentiated carcinoma were positive for AMACR expression. 21 of 25 (84%) moderately differentiated and all 10 (100%) cases of poorly differentiated tumors were positive for AMACR. There was statistically significant difference in expression of AMACR between benign and malignant lesions of the prostate, indicated by P = 0.001. In benign lesions, HMWCK was expressed in all the 13 (100%) cases while in malignant lesions of prostate it was not expressed in any of the (0%) case. All 13 benign lesions were positive for HMWCK only. AMACR expression was not seen in any of the benign lesion. Out of 37 malignant cases, 4 cases were negative for both, 33 cases were positive only for AMACR, but no case was positive only for HMWCK. Conclusions: As an adjunct to biopsy, AMACR and HMWCK have value for resolving diagnostically challenging cases.

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    -  Jain D
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    -  Lal S
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