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Epidemiological profile of head and neck cancer patients in Western Uttar Pradesh and analysis of distributions of risk factors in relation to site of tumor


1 Department of Radiotherapy, J.N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, J.N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Mohammad Shadab Alam,
Department of Radiotherapy, J.N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh - 202 002
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Background: Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are a major form of cancers in India. The spectrum varies from place to place within the country because of significant diversified risk factors. Aims and Objective: To study, epidemiology and risk factors of HNC patients from Western Uttar Pradesh and to find out the correlation between risk factors and different anatomical regions involved. Materials and Methods: All patients with histologically confirmed diagnoses of HNC between January 2011 and December 2013 were selected from hospital records. Data regarding age, gender, addiction habits, site of tumor, and other details were obtained from their clinical records, and statistical analysis was done. Results and Conclusion: HNC accounts for 21.2% of total body malignancy and 47% of all malignancies in males and 2.5% in females. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological type (97%). Maximum incidence of HNC (>60%) was in 40–60 year of age. Male:female ratio was 16:1. Oral cancers were most common HNC in patients below 40 year age group, whereas carcinoma oropharynx and larynx were more common in patients above 40 year age group. Tobacco smoking was a most prevalent risk factor for carcinoma oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. Tobacco chewing was a most prevalent risk factor in females, young males, and carcinoma buccal mucosa patients. Habit of tobacco consumption in HNC patients was much higher than their normal counterpart. Alcohols drinking alone was observed in <1% patient as a risk factor. In oral tongue cancer, smoking and tobacco chewing were equally prevalent. Habit of tobacco chewing and alcohol were significantly higher in carcinoma buccal mucosa than other HNC suggesting synergistic effect specific to this site.


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    -  Alam MS
    -  Siddiqui SA
    -  Perween R
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